21
Sc
3
週期
4
d
個質子
電子
個中子
21
21
24
一般屬性
原子序數
21
標準原子質量
44.955912
品質編號
45
類別
過渡金屬
顏色
銀色
放射性
From the Latin word Scandia, Scandinavia
晶體結構
簡單六角形
歷史
In 1879, Lars Fredrik Nilson and his team detected scandium in the minerals euxenite and gadolinite.

Nilson prepared 2 grams of scandium oxide of high purity.

Per Teodor Cleve showed that scandium had properties similar to those predicted by Mendeleev for eka-boron.

Metallic scandium was first prepared in 1937 by Fischer and his colleagues.
每個外殼的電子
2, 8, 9, 2
電子排布
[Ar] 3d1 4s2
Sc
The stable form of scandium is created in supernovas via the r-process
物理性質
物態
固體
密度
2.989 g/cm3
熔點
1814.15 K | 1541 °C | 2805.8 °F
沸點
3109.15 K | 2836 °C | 5136.8 °F
熔化熱
16 kJ/mol
汽化熱
318 kJ/mol
比熱容
0.568 J/g·K
地殼豐度
0.0026%
宇宙豐度
3×10-6%
Ultrapure
圖片來源: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure crystalline scandium
CAS 編號
7440-20-2
Pubchem CID 編號
23952
原子性質
原子半徑
162 pm
共價半徑
170 pm
電負性
1.36 (鲍林标度)
電離電位
6.5615 eV
原子體積
15.0 cm3/mol
熱導率
0.158 W/cm·K
氧化態
1, 2, 3
應用
Scandium is used in sports equipment such as golf iron shafts, baseball bats, bicycle frames and fishing rods.

Scandium iodide, along with sodium iodide, when added to a modified form of mercury-vapor lamp, produces a form of metal halide lamp.

The radioactive isotope 46Sc is used in oil refineries as a tracing agent.
Scandium is considered to be of low toxicity
同位素
穩定同位素
45Sc
不穩定同位素
36Sc, 37Sc, 38Sc, 39Sc, 40Sc, 41Sc, 42Sc, 43Sc, 44Sc, 46Sc, 47Sc, 48Sc, 49Sc, 50Sc, 51Sc, 52Sc, 53Sc, 54Sc, 55Sc, 56Sc, 57Sc, 58Sc, 59Sc, 60Sc