23
V
5
週期
4
d
個質子
電子
個中子
23
23
28
一般屬性
原子序數
23
標準原子質量
50.9415
品質編號
51
類別
過渡金屬
顏色
銀色
放射性
以斯堪的納維亞女神Vanadis的名字命名
晶體結構
Body Centered Cubic
歷史
Vanadium was originally discovered by Andrés Manuel del Río in 1801.

In 1805, the French chemist Hippolyte Victor Collet-Descotils incorrectly declared that del Río's new element was only an impure sample of chromium.

In 1831, the Swedish chemist Nils Gabriel Sefström rediscovered the element in a new oxide he found while working with iron ores.

Later that same year, Friedrich Wöhler confirmed del Río's earlier work.
每個外殼的電子
2, 8, 11, 2
電子排布
[Ar] 3d3 4s2
V
Vanadium is mined mostly in South Africa, north-western China, and eastern Russia
物理性質
物態
固體
密度
6.11 g/cm3
熔點
2183.15 K | 1910 °C | 3470 °F
沸點
3680.15 K | 3407 °C | 6164.6 °F
熔化熱
22.8 kJ/mol
汽化熱
453 kJ/mol
比熱容
0.489 J/g·K
地殼豐度
0.019%
宇宙豐度
0.0001%
Vanadium
圖片來源: Images-of-elements
Vanadium crystals made by electrolysis
CAS 編號
7440-62-2
Pubchem CID 編號
23990
原子性質
原子半徑
134 pm
共價半徑
153 pm
電負性
1.63 (鲍林标度)
電離電位
6.8281 eV
原子體積
8.78 cm3/mol
熱導率
0.307 W/cm·K
氧化態
-1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
應用
Vanadium is used as an additive in steel to strengthen and protect against corrosion.

Titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy is used in jet engines and for high-speed aircraft.

Vanadium foil is used in cladding titanium to steel.

Vanadium pentoxide is used in ceramics and as a catalyst for the production of sulfuric acid.
All vanadium compounds should be considered toxic
同位素
穩定同位素
51V
不穩定同位素
40V, 41V, 42V, 43V, 44V, 45V, 46V, 47V, 48V, 49V, 50V, 52V, 53V, 54V, 55V, 56V, 57V, 58V, 59V, 60V, 61V, 62V, 63V, 64V, 65V