44
Ru
8
週期
5
d
個質子
電子
個中子
44
44
57
一般屬性
原子序數
44
標準原子質量
101.07
品質編號
101
類別
過渡金屬
顏色
銀色
放射性
From the Latin word Ruthenia, Russia
晶體結構
簡單六角形
歷史
Jędrzej Śniadecki isolated the element in 1807, but his work was not ratified.

Jöns Berzelius and Gottfried Osann nearly discovered ruthenium in 1827.

In 1844, Karl Ernst Claus confirmed that there was a new element and isolated ruthenium from the platinum residues of the rouble production while he was working in Kazan University, Kazan.
每個外殼的電子
2, 8, 18, 15, 1
電子排布
[Kr] 4d7 5s1
Ru
Ruthenium is unaffected by air, water and acids
物理性質
物態
固體
密度
12.37 g/cm3
熔點
2607.15 K | 2334 °C | 4233.2 °F
沸點
4423.15 K | 4150 °C | 7502 °F
熔化熱
25.7 kJ/mol
汽化熱
580 kJ/mol
比熱容
0.238 J/g·K
地殼豐度
9.9×10-8%
宇宙豐度
4×10-7%
Gas
圖片來源: Wikimedia Commons (Periodictableru)
Gas phase grown crystals of ruthenium metal
CAS 編號
7440-18-8
Pubchem CID 編號
23950
原子性質
原子半徑
134 pm
共價半徑
146 pm
電負性
2.2 (鲍林标度)
電離電位
7.3605 eV
原子體積
8.3 cm3/mol
熱導率
1.17 W/cm·K
氧化態
-2, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
應用
Ruthenium is used in platinum and palladium alloys to make wear-resistant electrical contacts.

Ruthenium dioxide and lead and bismuth ruthenates are used in thick-film chip resistors.

Fountain pen nibs are frequently tipped with alloys containing ruthenium.

Ruthenium is a versatile catalyst.
Ruthenium is a suspected carcinogen and its compounds strongly stain the skin
同位素
穩定同位素
96Ru, 98Ru, 99Ru, 100Ru, 101Ru, 102Ru, 104Ru
不穩定同位素
87Ru, 88Ru, 89Ru, 90Ru, 91Ru, 92Ru, 93Ru, 94Ru, 95Ru, 97Ru, 103Ru, 105Ru, 106Ru, 107Ru, 108Ru, 109Ru, 110Ru, 111Ru, 112Ru, 113Ru, 114Ru, 115Ru, 116Ru, 117Ru, 118Ru, 119Ru, 120Ru