72
Hf
4
週期
6
d
個質子
電子
個中子
72
72
106
一般屬性
原子序數
72
標準原子質量
178.49
品質編號
178
類別
過渡金屬
顏色
灰色
放射性
From Hafinia, the Latin name for Copenhagen
晶體結構
簡單六角形
歷史
In 1911, Georges Urbain claimed to have found the element in rare-earth residues which was shown later to be a mixture of already discovered lanthanides.

Dirk Coster and George de Hevesy found it by X-ray spectroscopic analysis in Norwegian zircon in 1922.

Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hendrik de Boer were the first to prepare metallic hafnium by passing hafnium tetra-iodide vapor over a heated tungsten filament in 1924.
每個外殼的電子
2, 8, 18, 32, 10, 2
電子排布
[Xe] 4f14 5d2 6s2
Hf
In powdered form, hafnium is pyrophoric and can ignite spontaneously in air
物理性質
物態
固體
密度
13.31 g/cm3
熔點
2506.15 K | 2233 °C | 4051.4 °F
沸點
4876.15 K | 4603 °C | 8317.4 °F
熔化熱
25.5 kJ/mol
汽化熱
630 kJ/mol
比熱容
0.144 J/g·K
地殼豐度
0.00033%
宇宙豐度
7×10-8%
Electrolytic
圖片來源: Images-of-elements
Electrolytic hafnium
CAS 編號
7440-58-6
Pubchem CID 編號
23986
原子性質
原子半徑
159 pm
共價半徑
175 pm
電負性
1.3 (鲍林标度)
電離電位
6.8251 eV
原子體積
13.6 cm3/mol
熱導率
0.23 W/cm·K
氧化態
2, 3, 4
應用
Hafnium oxide-based compounds are being introduced into silicon-based chips to produce smaller, more energy efficient and performance packed processors.

Most of the hafnium produced is used in the production of control rods for nuclear reactors.

Hafnium is also used in photographic flash bulbs, light bulb filaments, and in electronic equipment as cathodes and capacitors.
Hafnium is considered to be non-toxic
同位素
穩定同位素
176Hf, 177Hf, 178Hf, 179Hf, 180Hf
不穩定同位素
153Hf, 154Hf, 155Hf, 156Hf, 157Hf, 158Hf, 159Hf, 160Hf, 161Hf, 162Hf, 163Hf, 164Hf, 165Hf, 166Hf, 167Hf, 168Hf, 169Hf, 170Hf, 171Hf, 172Hf, 173Hf, 174Hf, 175Hf, 181Hf, 182Hf, 183Hf, 184Hf, 185Hf, 186Hf, 187Hf, 188Hf