76
Os
8
週期
6
d
個質子
電子
個中子
76
76
114
一般屬性
原子序數
76
標準原子質量
190.23
品質編號
190
類別
過渡金屬
顏色
板岩灰
放射性
From the Greek word osme, meaning smell
晶體結構
簡單六角形
歷史
Osmium was discovered in 1803 by English chemist Smithson Tennant in London.

Chemists who studied platinum dissolved it in aqua regia to create soluble salts and observed a small amount of a dark, insoluble residue.

Smithson Tennant analyzed the insoluble residue and concluded that it must contain a new metal.
每個外殼的電子
2, 8, 18, 32, 14, 2
電子排布
[Xe] 4f14 5d6 6s2
Os
Osmium is the least abundant stable element in the Earth's crust
物理性質
物態
固體
密度
22.61 g/cm3
熔點
3306.15 K | 3033 °C | 5491.4 °F
沸點
5285.15 K | 5012 °C | 9053.6 °F
熔化熱
31 kJ/mol
汽化熱
630 kJ/mol
比熱容
0.13 J/g·K
地殼豐度
1.8×10-7%
宇宙豐度
3×10-7%
Osmium
圖片來源: Wikimedia Commons (Alchemist-hp)
Osmium crystals produced by chemical transport reaction in chlorine gas
CAS 編號
7440-04-2
Pubchem CID 編號
23937
原子性質
原子半徑
135 pm
共價半徑
144 pm
電負性
2.2 (鲍林标度)
電離電位
8.4382 eV
原子體積
8.49 cm3/mol
熱導率
0.876 W/cm·K
氧化態
-2, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
應用
Osmium is used alloyed with other metals in the platinum group to produce very hard alloys.

Osmium alloys are used in the tips of fountain pens, instrument pivots, and electrical contacts

Osmium tetroxide has been used in fingerprint detection and in staining fatty tissue for optical and electron microscopy.
Even low concentrations in air can cause lung congestion, skin damage, or eye damage
同位素
穩定同位素
184Os, 187Os, 188Os, 189Os, 190Os, 192Os
不穩定同位素
161Os, 162Os, 163Os, 164Os, 165Os, 166Os, 167Os, 168Os, 169Os, 170Os, 171Os, 172Os, 173Os, 174Os, 175Os, 176Os, 177Os, 178Os, 179Os, 180Os, 181Os, 182Os, 183Os, 185Os, 186Os, 191Os, 193Os, 194Os, 195Os, 196Os