3
Li
1
週期
2
s
個質子
電子
個中子
3
3
4
一般屬性
原子序數
3
標準原子質量
6.941
品質編號
7
類別
鹼金屬
顏色
銀色
放射性
希臘文 '石頭'
晶體結構
Body Centered Cubic
歷史
Lithium was discovered by Johann Arfvedson in 1817 when he was analyzing minerals from the island of Uto in Sweden.

The pure metal was isolated the following year by both Swedish chemist William Thomas Brande and English chemist Sir Humphry Davy working independently.

In 1855, larger quantities of lithium were produced through the electrolysis of lithium chloride by Robert Bunsen and Augustus Matthiessen.
每個外殼的電子
2, 1
電子排布
[He] 2s1
Li
Lithium is the only metal which reacts with nitrogen under normal conditions
物理性質
物態
固體
密度
0.534 g/cm3
熔點
453.69 K | 180.54 °C | 356.97 °F
沸點
1615.15 K | 1342 °C | 2447.6 °F
熔化熱
3 kJ/mol
汽化熱
147 kJ/mol
比熱容
3.582 J/g·K
地殼豐度
0.0017%
宇宙豐度
6×10-7%
0.5
圖片來源: Images-of-elements
0.5 grams lithium under argon
CAS 編號
7439-93-2
Pubchem CID 編號
3028194
原子性質
原子半徑
152 pm
共價半徑
128 pm
電負性
0.98 (鲍林标度)
電離電位
5.3917 eV
原子體積
13.10 cm3/mol
熱導率
0.847 W/cm·K
氧化態
1
應用
Pure lithium metal is used in rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

Lithium stearate is used as an all-purpose and high-temperature lubricant.

Lithium is used in special glasses and ceramics.

Metallic lithium and its complex hydrides are used as high energy additives to rocket propellants.
Lithium is corrosive and requires special handling to avoid skin contact
同位素
穩定同位素
6Li, 7Li
不穩定同位素
4Li, 5Li, 8Li, 9Li, 10Li, 11Li, 12Li