32
Ge
14
週期
4
p
個質子
電子
個中子
32
32
41
一般屬性
原子序數
32
標準原子質量
72.63
品質編號
73
類別
類金屬
顏色
灰色
放射性
From the Latin word Germania, Germany
晶體結構
面居中立方
歷史
In 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev predicted its existence and some of its properties based on its position on his periodic table and called the element eka-silicon.

In 1886, Clemens Winkler found the new element along with silver and sulfur, in a rare mineral called argyrodite.

The first silicon-germanium alloys were obtained in 1955.
每個外殼的電子
2, 8, 18, 4
電子排布
[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
Ge
Germanium and the oxide are transparent to infrared radiation
物理性質
物態
固體
密度
5.323 g/cm3
熔點
1211.4 K | 938.25 °C | 1720.85 °F
沸點
3106.15 K | 2833 °C | 5131.4 °F
熔化熱
31.8 kJ/mol
汽化熱
334 kJ/mol
比熱容
0.32 J/g·K
地殼豐度
0.00014%
宇宙豐度
0.00002%
Ultrapure
圖片來源: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure chunk of polycrystalline germanium
CAS 編號
7440-56-4
Pubchem CID 編號
6326954
原子性質
原子半徑
122 pm
共價半徑
122 pm
電負性
2.01 (鲍林标度)
電離電位
7.8994 eV
原子體積
13.6 cm3/mol
熱導率
0.599 W/cm·K
氧化態
-4, 1, 2, 3, 4
應用
The most common use of germanium is as a semiconductor in electronics.

Germanium is used in transistors and in integrated circuits.

It is used as an alloying agent and as a catalyst.

It is also used in infrared spectroscopes and infrared detectors.
Germanium is not known to be toxic
同位素
穩定同位素
70Ge, 72Ge, 73Ge, 74Ge
不穩定同位素
58Ge, 59Ge, 60Ge, 61Ge, 62Ge, 63Ge, 64Ge, 65Ge, 66Ge, 67Ge, 68Ge, 69Ge, 71Ge, 75Ge, 76Ge, 77Ge, 78Ge, 79Ge, 80Ge, 81Ge, 82Ge, 83Ge, 84Ge, 85Ge, 86Ge, 87Ge, 88Ge, 89Ge