31
Ga
13
週期
4
p
個質子
電子
個中子
31
31
39
一般屬性
原子序數
31
標準原子質量
69.723
品質編號
70
類別
弱金屬
顏色
銀色
放射性
From the Latin word Gallia, France; also from Latin, gallus, a translation of Lecoq, a cock
晶體結構
Base Centered Orthorhombic
歷史
In 1871, existence of gallium was first predicted by Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev and called the element eka-aluminum.

Gallium was discovered spectroscopically by French chemist Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1875 by its characteristic spectrum in an examination of a sphalerite sample.

Later that year, Lecoq obtained the free metal by electrolysis of its hydroxide in potassium hydroxide solution.
每個外殼的電子
2, 8, 18, 3
電子排布
[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1
Ga
Gallium has a strong tendency to supercool below its melting point / freezing point
物理性質
物態
固體
密度
5.907 g/cm3
熔點
302.91 K | 29.76 °C | 85.57 °F
沸點
2477.15 K | 2204 °C | 3999.2 °F
熔化熱
5.59 kJ/mol
汽化熱
256 kJ/mol
比熱容
0.371 J/g·K
地殼豐度
0.0019%
宇宙豐度
1×10-6%
Crystals
圖片來源: Wikimedia Commons (Foobar)
Crystals of gallium
CAS 編號
7440-55-3
Pubchem CID 編號
5360835
原子性質
原子半徑
135 pm
共價半徑
122 pm
電負性
1.81 (鲍林标度)
電離電位
5.9993 eV
原子體積
11.8 cm3/mol
熱導率
0.406 W/cm·K
氧化態
1, 2, 3
應用
Gallium wets glass or porcelain and forms a brilliant mirror when it is painted on glass.

It is widely used in doping semiconductors and producing solid-state devices such as transistors.

Low melting gallium alloys are used in some medical thermometers as non-toxic substitutes for mercury.

Gallium arsenide is capable of converting electricity directly into coherent light.
Gallium is considered to be non-toxic
同位素
穩定同位素
69Ga, 71Ga
不穩定同位素
56Ga, 57Ga, 58Ga, 59Ga, 60Ga, 61Ga, 62Ga, 63Ga, 64Ga, 65Ga, 66Ga, 67Ga, 68Ga, 70Ga, 72Ga, 73Ga, 74Ga, 75Ga, 76Ga, 77Ga, 78Ga, 79Ga, 80Ga, 81Ga, 82Ga, 83Ga, 84Ga, 85Ga, 86Ga