37
Rb
1
週期
5
s
個質子
電子
個中子
37
37
48
一般屬性
原子序數
37
標準原子質量
85.4678
品質編號
85
類別
鹼金屬
顏色
銀色
放射性
From the Latin word rubidus, deepest red
晶體結構
Body Centered Cubic
歷史
German chemists Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff discovered rubidium in 1861 by the newly developed method of flame spectroscopy.

The separation of the metal was tried by Bunsen, but he never got samples with more than 18% of Rubidium.

The separation of the metal was only accomplished by George de Hevesy, through the hydrolysis of melted rubidium hydroxide.
每個外殼的電子
2, 8, 18, 8, 1
電子排布
[Kr] 5s1
Rb
Rubidium burns with a reddish-violet flame color
物理性質
物態
固體
密度
1.532 g/cm3
熔點
312.46 K | 39.31 °C | 102.76 °F
沸點
961.15 K | 688 °C | 1270.4 °F
熔化熱
2.19 kJ/mol
汽化熱
72 kJ/mol
比熱容
0.363 J/g·K
地殼豐度
0.006%
宇宙豐度
1×10-6%
Rubidium
圖片來源: Wikimedia Commons (Dnn87)
Rubidium metal sample from the Dennis s.k collection
CAS 編號
7440-17-7
Pubchem CID 編號
5357696
原子性質
原子半徑
248 pm
共價半徑
220 pm
電負性
0.82 (鲍林标度)
電離電位
4.1771 eV
原子體積
55.9 cm3/mol
熱導率
0.582 W/cm·K
氧化態
-1, 1
應用
Rubidium is used as a getter in vacuum tubes and as a photocell component.

Rubidium compounds are sometimes used in fireworks to give them a purple color.

Rubidium salts are used in glasses and ceramics.

Rubidium-87 is slightly radioactive and has been used extensively in dating rocks.
Rubidium is not known to be toxic
同位素
穩定同位素
85Rb
不穩定同位素
71Rb, 72Rb, 73Rb, 74Rb, 75Rb, 76Rb, 77Rb, 78Rb, 79Rb, 80Rb, 81Rb, 82Rb, 83Rb, 84Rb, 86Rb, 87Rb, 88Rb, 89Rb, 90Rb, 91Rb, 92Rb, 93Rb, 94Rb, 95Rb, 96Rb, 97Rb, 98Rb, 99Rb, 100Rb, 101Rb, 102Rb