41
Nb
5
週期
5
d
個質子
電子
個中子
41
41
52
一般屬性
原子序數
41
標準原子質量
92.90638
品質編號
93
類別
過渡金屬
顏色
灰色
放射性
Named after Niobe, the daughter of Tantalu
晶體結構
Body Centered Cubic
歷史
Niobium was discovered by the English chemist Charles Hatchett in 1801 and named the new element columbium.

In 1846, German chemist Henrich Rose independently discovered the element and named it niobium.

The metal was first isolated by Swedish scientist Christian Wilhelm Blomstrand in 1864 who reduced the chloride by heating it in a hydrogen atmosphere.
每個外殼的電子
2, 8, 18, 12, 1
電子排布
[Kr] 4d4 5s1
Nb
Brazil is the leading producer of niobium
物理性質
物態
固體
密度
8.57 g/cm3
熔點
2750.15 K | 2477 °C | 4490.6 °F
沸點
5017.15 K | 4744 °C | 8571.2 °F
熔化熱
26.8 kJ/mol
汽化熱
690 kJ/mol
比熱容
0.265 J/g·K
地殼豐度
0.0017%
宇宙豐度
2×10-7%
Ultrapure
圖片來源: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure niobium bead, slightly oxidized
CAS 編號
7440-03-1
Pubchem CID 編號
23936
原子性質
原子半徑
146 pm
共價半徑
164 pm
電負性
1.6 (鲍林标度)
電離電位
6.7589 eV
原子體積
10.87 cm3/mol
熱導率
0.537 W/cm·K
氧化態
-1, 2, 3, 4, 5
應用
Niobium is used in arc-welding rods for stabilized grades of stainless steel.

Niobium alloys are strong and are often used in pipeline construction.

The metal is used in superalloys for jet engines and heat resistant equipment.

Niobium is found in many medical devices such as pacemakers.
Some niobium compounds are highly toxic
同位素
穩定同位素
93Nb
不穩定同位素
81Nb, 82Nb, 83Nb, 84Nb, 85Nb, 86Nb, 87Nb, 88Nb, 89Nb, 90Nb, 91Nb, 92Nb, 94Nb, 95Nb, 96Nb, 97Nb, 98Nb, 99Nb, 100Nb, 101Nb, 102Nb, 103Nb, 104Nb, 105Nb, 106Nb, 107Nb, 108Nb, 109Nb, 110Nb, 111Nb, 112Nb, 113Nb