40
Zr
4
週期
5
d
個質子
電子
個中子
40
40
51
一般屬性
原子序數
40
標準原子質量
91.224
品質編號
91
類別
過渡金屬
顏色
銀色
放射性
From the Persian zargun, gold like
晶體結構
簡單六角形
歷史
Zirconium was first recognized as an element by Martin Heinrich Klaproth in 1789, in Berlin, in a sample of zircon from Sri Lanka.

Zirconium metal was first obtained in an impure form in 1824 by Jöns Jakob Berzelius by heating a mixture of potassium and potassium zirconium fluoride in an iron tube.

Dutch scientists Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hendrik de Boer discovered a method for producing high purity zirconium in 1925.
每個外殼的電子
2, 8, 18, 10, 2
電子排布
[Kr] 4d2 5s2
Zr
The most common oxide is zirconium dioxide, also referred to as zirconia
物理性質
物態
固體
密度
6.506 g/cm3
熔點
2128.15 K | 1855 °C | 3371 °F
沸點
4682.15 K | 4409 °C | 7968.2 °F
熔化熱
21 kJ/mol
汽化熱
580 kJ/mol
比熱容
0.278 J/g·K
地殼豐度
0.013%
宇宙豐度
5×10-6%
Two
圖片來源: Wikimedia Commons (Alchemist-hp)
Two samples of crystal bar showing different surface textures as well as a highly pure zirconium cube for comparison
CAS 編號
7440-67-7
Pubchem CID 編號
23995
原子性質
原子半徑
160 pm
共價半徑
175 pm
電負性
1.33 (鲍林标度)
電離電位
6.6339 eV
原子體積
14.0 cm3/mol
熱導率
0.227 W/cm·K
氧化態
1, 2, 3, 4
應用
Zirconium is mainly used as a refractory and opacifier, although it is used in small amounts as an alloying agent for its strong resistance to corrosion.

Zirconium is used as to make surgical instruments and is used in steel alloys as a hardening agent.

Zirconium is also used to make superconductive magnets.
Zirconium is considered to be non-toxic
同位素
穩定同位素
90Zr, 91Zr, 92Zr, 94Zr
不穩定同位素
78Zr, 79Zr, 80Zr, 81Zr, 82Zr, 83Zr, 84Zr, 85Zr, 86Zr, 87Zr, 88Zr, 89Zr, 93Zr, 95Zr, 96Zr, 97Zr, 98Zr, 99Zr, 100Zr, 101Zr, 102Zr, 103Zr, 104Zr, 105Zr, 106Zr, 107Zr, 108Zr, 109Zr, 110Zr