64
Gd
無法計量
週期
6
f
個質子
電子
個中子
64
64
93
一般屬性
原子序數
64
標準原子質量
157.25
品質編號
157
類別
鑭系元素
顏色
銀色
放射性
From gadolinite, a mineral named for Gadolin, a Finnish chemist
晶體結構
簡單六角形
歷史
Gadolinium was first detected spectroscopically in 1880 by the Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac who separated its oxide.

He observed spectroscopic lines due to gadolinium in samples of gadolinite and in the separate mineral cerite.

The metal was isolated by Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1886.
每個外殼的電子
2, 8, 18, 25, 9, 2
電子排布
[Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2
Gd
Gadolinium has the highest neutron cross-section among any stable nuclides
物理性質
物態
固體
密度
7.895 g/cm3
熔點
1585.15 K | 1312 °C | 2393.6 °F
沸點
3546.15 K | 3273 °C | 5923.4 °F
熔化熱
10 kJ/mol
汽化熱
305 kJ/mol
比熱容
0.236 J/g·K
地殼豐度
0.00052%
宇宙豐度
2×10-7%
Ultrapure
圖片來源: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure amorphous gadolinium
CAS 編號
7440-54-2
Pubchem CID 編號
23982
原子性質
原子半徑
180 pm
共價半徑
196 pm
電負性
1.2 (鲍林标度)
電離電位
6.1501 eV
原子體積
19.9 cm3/mol
熱導率
0.106 W/cm·K
氧化態
1, 2, 3
應用
Gadolinium is used to make gadolinium yttrium garnets which have microwave applications.

It is also used in intravenous radiocontrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Gadolinium compounds are used for making green phosphors for color TV tubes, and in manufacturing compact discs.
Gadolinium is considered to be moderately toxic
同位素
穩定同位素
154Gd, 155Gd, 156Gd, 157Gd, 158Gd, 160Gd
不穩定同位素
134Gd, 135Gd, 136Gd, 137Gd, 138Gd, 139Gd, 140Gd, 141Gd, 142Gd, 143Gd, 144Gd, 145Gd, 146Gd, 147Gd, 148Gd, 149Gd, 150Gd, 151Gd, 152Gd, 153Gd, 159Gd, 161Gd, 162Gd, 163Gd, 164Gd, 165Gd, 166Gd, 167Gd, 168Gd, 169Gd