69
Tm
無法計量
週期
6
f
個質子
電子
個中子
69
69
100
一般屬性
原子序數
69
標準原子質量
168.93421
品質編號
169
類別
鑭系元素
顏色
銀色
放射性
Named after Thule, the earliest name for Scandinavia
晶體結構
簡單六角形
歷史
Thulium was discovered by Swedish chemist Per Teodor Cleve in 1879 by looking for impurities in the oxides of other rare earth elements.

The first researcher to obtain nearly pure thulium was Charles James, a British expatriate working on a large scale at New Hampshire College in Durham.

High-purity thulium oxide was first offered commercially in the late 1950s.
每個外殼的電子
2, 8, 18, 31, 8, 2
電子排布
[Xe] 4f13 6s2
Tm
Thulium ore occurs most commonly in China
物理性質
物態
固體
密度
9.321 g/cm3
熔點
1818.15 K | 1545 °C | 2813 °F
沸點
2223.15 K | 1950 °C | 3542 °F
熔化熱
16.8 kJ/mol
汽化熱
250 kJ/mol
比熱容
0.16 J/g·K
地殼豐度
0.000045%
宇宙豐度
1×10-8%
Ultrapure
圖片來源: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure crystalline thulium
CAS 編號
7440-30-4
Pubchem CID 編號
23961
原子性質
原子半徑
176 pm
共價半徑
190 pm
電負性
1.25 (鲍林标度)
電離電位
6.1843 eV
原子體積
18.1 cm3/mol
熱導率
0.168 W/cm·K
氧化態
2, 3
應用
Thulium is used to dope yttrium aluminum garnets used in lasers.

It has also been used in high-temperature superconductors similarly to yttrium.

Thulium has use in ferrites, ceramic magnetic materials that are used in microwave equipment.

Thulium is used in euro banknotes for its blue fluorescence under UV light to defeat counterfeiters.
Thulium is considered to be non-toxic
同位素
穩定同位素
169Tm
不穩定同位素
145Tm, 146Tm, 147Tm, 148Tm, 149Tm, 150Tm, 151Tm, 152Tm, 153Tm, 154Tm, 155Tm, 156Tm, 157Tm, 158Tm, 159Tm, 160Tm, 161Tm, 162Tm, 163Tm, 164Tm, 165Tm, 166Tm, 167Tm, 168Tm, 170Tm, 171Tm, 172Tm, 173Tm, 174Tm, 175Tm, 176Tm, 177Tm, 178Tm, 179Tm