82
Pb
14
週期
6
p
個質子
電子
個中子
82
82
125
一般屬性
原子序數
82
標準原子質量
207.2
品質編號
207
類別
弱金屬
顏色
板岩灰
放射性
From the Latin word plumbum
晶體結構
面居中立方
歷史
Metallic lead beads dating back to 6400 BC have been found in Çatalhöyük in modern-day Turkey.

The Romans also used lead in molten form to secure iron pins that held together large limestone blocks in certain monumental buildings.

In alchemy, lead was thought to be the oldest metal and was associated with the planet Saturn.
每個外殼的電子
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 4
電子排布
[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2
Pb
Pencil leads in wooden pencils have never been made from lead
物理性質
物態
固體
密度
11.342 g/cm3
熔點
600.61 K | 327.46 °C | 621.43 °F
沸點
2022.15 K | 1749 °C | 3180.2 °F
熔化熱
4.77 kJ/mol
汽化熱
178 kJ/mol
比熱容
0.129 J/g·K
地殼豐度
0.00099%
宇宙豐度
1×10-6%
Ultrapure
圖片來源: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure lead bead
CAS 編號
7439-92-1
Pubchem CID 編號
5352425
原子性質
原子半徑
175 pm
共價半徑
146 pm
電負性
2.33 (鲍林标度)
電離電位
7.4167 eV
原子體積
18.17 cm3/mol
熱導率
0.353 W/cm·K
氧化態
-4, 2, 4
應用
Large quantities of lead, both as the metal and as the dioxide, are used in storage batteries.

Lead is used as electrodes in the process of electrolysis.

It is added to brass to reduce machine tool wear.

Lead, in either pure form or alloyed with tin, or antimony is the traditional material for bullets and shot in firearms use.
Lead and its compounds are poisonous
同位素
穩定同位素
204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb
不穩定同位素
178Pb, 179Pb, 180Pb, 181Pb, 182Pb, 183Pb, 184Pb, 185Pb, 186Pb, 187Pb, 188Pb, 189Pb, 190Pb, 191Pb, 192Pb, 193Pb, 194Pb, 195Pb, 196Pb, 197Pb, 198Pb, 199Pb, 200Pb, 201Pb, 202Pb, 203Pb, 205Pb, 209Pb, 210Pb, 211Pb, 212Pb, 213Pb, 214Pb, 215Pb