83
Bi
15
週期
6
p
個質子
電子
個中子
83
83
126
一般屬性
原子序數
83
標準原子質量
208.9804
品質編號
209
類別
弱金屬
顏色
灰色
放射性
From the German Weisse Masse, meaning white mass
晶體結構
以基中心單核
歷史
Bismuth has been known since ancient times, so no one person is credited with its discovery.

The element was confused in early times with tin and lead because of its resemblance to those elements.

In 1753, French chemist Claude François Geoffroy demonstrated that this metal is distinct from lead and tin.
每個外殼的電子
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 5
電子排布
[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3
Bi
Bismuth has unusually high electrical resistance for a metal
物理性質
物態
固體
密度
9.78 g/cm3
熔點
544.65 K | 271.5 °C | 520.7 °F
沸點
1837.15 K | 1564 °C | 2847.2 °F
熔化熱
10.9 kJ/mol
汽化熱
160 kJ/mol
比熱容
0.122 J/g·K
地殼豐度
2.5×10-6%
宇宙豐度
7×10-8%
Bismuth
圖片來源: Images-of-elements
Bismuth crystal with fancy oxide film
CAS 編號
7440-69-9
Pubchem CID 編號
5359367
原子性質
原子半徑
156 pm
共價半徑
148 pm
電負性
2.02 (鲍林标度)
電離電位
7.2856 eV
原子體積
21.3 cm3/mol
熱導率
0.0797 W/cm·K
氧化態
-3, 3, 5
應用
Bismuth is used in producing malleable irons and is used as a catalyst for making acrylic fibers.

Bismuth oxychloride is used in cosmetics, as a pigment in paint for eye shadows, hair sprays and nail polishes.

It has also been used as a replacement for lead in shot, bullets and less-lethal riot gun ammunition.
Bismuth is considered to be non-toxic
同位素
穩定同位素
-
不穩定同位素
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