14
Si
14
週期
3
p
個質子
電子
個中子
14
14
14
一般屬性
原子序數
14
標準原子質量
28.0855
品質編號
28
類別
類金屬
顏色
灰色
放射性
From the Latin word silex, silicis, flint
晶體結構
四面體形
歷史
In 1800, Sir Humphry Davy thought silica to be a compound and not an element; but in 1811, Gay Lussac and Louis Jacques Thénard probably prepared impure amorphous silicon by heating potassium with silicon tetrafluoride.

In 1824 Jöns Jakob Berzelius prepared amorphous silicon by the same general method.

Henri Deville in 1854 first prepared crystalline silicon, the second allotropic form of the element.
每個外殼的電子
2, 8, 4
電子排布
[Ne] 3s2 3p2
Si
Silicon also has the unusual property that it expands as it freezes
物理性質
物態
固體
密度
2.3296 g/cm3
熔點
1687.15 K | 1414 °C | 2577.2 °F
沸點
3538.15 K | 3265 °C | 5909 °F
熔化熱
50.2 kJ/mol
汽化熱
359 kJ/mol
比熱容
0.705 J/g·K
地殼豐度
27%
宇宙豐度
0.07%
Close
圖片來源: Wikimedia Commons (Enricoros)
Close up photo of a piece of purified silicon
CAS 編號
7440-21-3
Pubchem CID 編號
5461123
原子性質
原子半徑
111 pm
共價半徑
111 pm
電負性
1.9 (鲍林标度)
電離電位
8.1517 eV
原子體積
12.1 cm3/mol
熱導率
1.48 W/cm·K
氧化態
-4, -3, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4
應用
In the form of sand and clay it is used to make concrete and brick; it is a useful refractory material for high-temperature work, and in the form of silicates it is used in making enamels, pottery, etc.

Silica, as sand, is a principal ingredient of glass.

Silicon chips are the basis of modern electronic and computing.

Silicon carbide, more commonly called carborundum is used in abrasives.
If breathed in as a fine silica/silicate dust, it may cause chronic respiratory problems
同位素
穩定同位素
28Si, 29Si, 30Si
不穩定同位素
22Si, 23Si, 24Si, 25Si, 26Si, 27Si, 31Si, 32Si, 33Si, 34Si, 35Si, 36Si, 37Si, 38Si, 39Si, 40Si, 41Si, 42Si, 43Si, 44Si