15
P
15
週期
3
p
個質子
電子
個中子
15
15
16
一般屬性
原子序數
15
標準原子質量
30.973762
品質編號
31
類別
非金屬
顏色
無色
放射性
From the Greek phosphoros, light bearing; ancient name for the planet Venus when appearing before sunrise
晶體結構
簡單三葉酸
歷史
Hennig Brand discovered phosphorus in 1669, in Hamburg, Germany, preparing it from urine.

In 1769, Johan Gottlieb Gahn and Carl Wilhelm Scheele showed that calcium phosphate is found in bones, and they obtained elemental phosphorus from bone ash.

Antoine Lavoisier recognized phosphorus as an element in 1777.
每個外殼的電子
2, 8, 5
電子排布
[Ne] 3s2 3p3
P
Elemental phosphorus exists in two major forms - white phosphorus and red phosphorus
物理性質
物態
固體
密度
1.82 g/cm3
熔點
317.25 K | 44.1 °C | 111.38 °F
沸點
553 K | 279.85 °C | 535.73 °F
熔化熱
0.64 kJ/mol
汽化熱
12.4 kJ/mol
比熱容
0.769 J/g·K
地殼豐度
0.099%
宇宙豐度
0.0007%
Red
圖片來源: Images-of-elements
Red phosphorus as powder
CAS 編號
7723-14-0
Pubchem CID 編號
5462309
原子性質
原子半徑
98 pm
共價半徑
107 pm
電負性
2.19 (鲍林标度)
電離電位
10.4867 eV
原子體積
17.0 cm3/mol
熱導率
0.00235 W/cm·K
氧化態
-3, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
應用
Many fertilisers contain a high proportion of phosphorus and are manufactured from concentrated phosphoric acids.

Phosphorus is used in the manufacture of safety matches, pyrotechnics and incendiary shells.

Phosphorus is also used in steel manufacture and in the production of phosphor bronze.
White phosphorus is highly toxic while red phosphorus is considered non-toxic
同位素
穩定同位素
31P
不穩定同位素
24P, 25P, 26P, 27P, 28P, 29P, 30P, 32P, 33P, 34P, 35P, 36P, 37P, 38P, 39P, 40P, 41P, 42P, 43P, 44P, 45P, 46P