16
S
16
週期
3
p
個質子
電子
個中子
16
16
16
一般屬性
原子序數
16
標準原子質量
32.065
品質編號
32
類別
非金屬
顏色
黃色
放射性
古人所知; 在創世紀中被稱為硫磺
晶體結構
Face Centered Orthorhombic
歷史
By the 3rd century, the Chinese discovered that sulfur could be extracted from pyrite.

Indian alchemists wrote extensively about the use of sulfur in alchemical operations with mercury, from the eighth century AD onwards.

In 1777, Antoine Lavoisier helped convince the scientific community that sulfur was an element, not a compound.
每個外殼的電子
2, 8, 6
電子排布
[Ne] 3s2 3p4
S
Penicillin is a natural, sulfur-based antibiotic
物理性質
物態
固體
密度
2.067 g/cm3
熔點
388.36 K | 115.21 °C | 239.38 °F
沸點
717.8 K | 444.65 °C | 832.37 °F
熔化熱
1.73 kJ/mol
汽化熱
9.8 kJ/mol
比熱容
0.71 J/g·K
地殼豐度
0.042%
宇宙豐度
0.05%
A
圖片來源: Wikimedia Commons (Ben Mills)
A sample of sulfur
CAS 編號
7704-34-9
Pubchem CID 編號
5362487
原子性質
原子半徑
88 pm
共價半徑
105 pm
電負性
2.58 (鲍林标度)
電離電位
10.36 eV
原子體積
15.5 cm3/mol
熱導率
0.00269 W/cm·K
氧化態
-2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
應用
Sulfur's main commercial use is as a reactant in the production of sulfuric acid.

Sulfur is a component of black gunpowder, and is used in the vulcanization of natural rubber and a fungicide.

It is used to make sulfite paper and other papers, to fumigate fumigant, and to bleach dried fruits.

It is also used extensively in making phosphatic fertilizers.
Elemental sulfur is considered to be of low toxicity
同位素
穩定同位素
32S, 33S, 34S, 36S
不穩定同位素
26S, 27S, 28S, 29S, 30S, 31S, 35S, 37S, 38S, 39S, 40S, 41S, 42S, 43S, 44S, 45S, 46S, 47S, 48S, 49S